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Verantwortungsvoll (ge)denken » Nachkommen in Auschwitz
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Nachkommen in Auschwitz

Block 27, in dem heute die Länderausstellung Israels ihren Platz findet. Foto: Junge Presse e.V. / Ozan Keskinkilic Schwarze Tafeln überdecken die blanken Wände der Ausstellung im ehemaligen Stammlager Auschwitz. Sie spiegeln den Wahnsinn nationalsozialistischer Rassenideologie wider und rufen zur Auslöschung des Judentums auf. Unter den Besuchern aus aller Welt stechen die israelischen Jugendlichen besonders hervor. Sie tragen bunte Baseballkappen und Sonnenbrillen. Die israelische Flagge haben sie wie einen Umhang um den Hals gebunden, sie hängt den Rücken hinunter und schwingt bei jeder Bewegung durch den Raum. Ihre Blicke sind auf die Zahl gerichtet, die auf einer der Tafeln in der Mitte des Raumes steht: 1 100 000, die Zahl der nach Auschwitz deportierten Juden zwischen 1940 und 1945. Als die Jugendlichen aus Israel Berge abgeschorener Haare im zweiten Stockwerk hinter Glaswänden sehen, stehen Schock und Entsetzen in ihren Gesichtern geschrieben. Sie reden nicht. Ihre Flaggen sprechen für sich, sie wehen und ziehen weiter.

„Für Israelis ist es natürlich ganz anders, durch die Gedenkstätte zu gehen“, sagt Bozena Kramarcyzk. „Sie gehen anders durch die Ausstellungen und haben ein eigenes Programm. Sie singen, lesen Texte und beten.“ Die polnische Museumsführerin verlässt das Gebäude mit zügigen Schritten und zielt auf den gegenüberliegenden Block ab. Von Lederschuhen, Jeans und Gürtel bis hin zur Bluse ist sie vollkommen in schwarz gekleidet. Lediglich das orangefarbene Band des silbergrauen Funkgerätes, das sie um den Hals trägt, bricht die farbliche Einheit ihrer Kleidung. Kramarcyzk arbeitet seit vielen Jahren in der Gedenkstätte und begleitet hauptsächlich deutschsprachige Gruppen durch das ehemalige Konzentrationslager. Sie blickt der israelischen Gruppe hinterher, die den nächsten Block schon betreten hat. Es ist die einzige Besuchsgruppe, die das Gelände mit Flaggen betritt, sagt sie. „Es ist ihre Art, Auschwitz damit zu begegnen.“

Aber nicht nur Flaggen markieren in der Gedenkstätte Unterschiede zwischen Besuchern. Auch Kippa und Halsketten mit Davidsternen gehören zu den Zeichen einer Gruppe, die der Geschichte des Holocausts aus jüdischen Lebensrealitäten entgegentritt. Zeev Reichard gehört dazu. Der jüdische Düsseldorfer betritt den Block 27 mit einer schwarzen Kippa unter der grauen Baseballmütze. In der Eingangshalle erklingt Musik. Es ist das Lied „Ani Maamin“, übersetzt „Ich glaube“, das die Besucher der israelischen Ausstellung in Auschwitz begrüßt. Der Text des traditionell hebräischen Volksliedes wird in weißen Buchstaben auf eine Wand projiziert.

Das Buch der Namen. Foto: Junge Presse e.V. / Julius Berger„Die Musik ist wirklich schön“, sagt Zeev und betritt den nächsten Raum. Er wird auf eine Karte aufmerksam, die die Zahl jüdischer Einwohner in europäischen Ländern vor dem Massenmord darstellt. Der junge Düsseldorfer zeigt mit dem Zeigefinger auf Polen. 3 250 000 Juden, stellt er fest. In Deutschland sind es zu der Zeit 524 000. „Das ist einfach krass.“ So wie auch der Rest der Ausstellung, die der Staat Israel gemeinsam mit der nationalen Gedenkstätte Yad Vashem gestaltet hat. Video- und Audiomaterialien zeugen von jüdischem Leben vor der industrialisierten Tötungsmaschinerie. Am Ende der Ausstellung steht das weltbekannte Zitat von Primo Levi an der Wand. „Es ist geschehen, also kann es wieder geschehen. Das ist der Kern dessen, was wir zu sagen haben.“ Deshalb stehen nahe dem Ausgangstor des Ausstellungsgebäudes Kerzen, die israelische Jugendliche zum Gedenken an die Todesopfer und als Zeichen gegen das Vergessen anzünden. Auch Zeev hält einen Moment inne, als er den Namen seiner Urgroßmutter im Buch der Namen gefunden hat. Sie hat den Holocaust nicht überlebt.

Ozan Keskinkilic (27. Juli 2014)